OPM ADG, Section VI: Annotated References, Part III
Section VI: Annotated References (Part III)
Campion, J. E. (1972). Work sampling for personnel
selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(1), 40-44.
The author developed a work sample checklist from
supervisors' ratings of important tasks and behaviors expected of maintenance
mechanics. The test was given to 34 employees by an outside consulting firm,
and checklist evaluations were compared with (a) supervisors' evaluation of
each employee on three factors; and (b) employees' responses on the test of
mechanical comprehension, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, and the short
employment tests. Results indicated performance on the work sample was
significantly related to supervisory evaluations of job success, but none of
the validity coefficients for the paper-and-pencil tests were significant.
Gilliland, S. W. (1995). Fairness from the applicants'
perspective: Reactions to employee selection procedures. International
Journal of Selection and Assessment, 3(1), 11-19.
Applicants' reactions to selection procedures were examined
in terms of the satisfaction and/or violation of ten procedural justice rules.
Critical incidents (n = 237) of fair and unfair treatment during selection were
collected from 31 individuals who had recently experienced job search and
hiring processes. Incidents were categorized into ten procedural justice rules
and the distribution of these incidents was examined for different hiring
outcomes and different selection procedures. Dominant procedural concerns
reflected selection procedure job relatedness and interpersonal treatment
applicants received. Accepted applicants were primarily concerned about
consistency of treatment, while rejected applicants were more concerned with
timely feedback and blatant bias. Ease of faking was the primary procedural
concern of applicants taking honesty and personality tests, while job relatedness
was the primary concern with ability and work sample tests. Research issues
were discussed and a number of practical suggestions were offered in terms of
minimizing applicants' negative reactions to the selection process.
Lance, C. E., Johnson, C. D., Douthitt, S. S., Bennett,
W., & Harville, D. L. (2000). Good news: Work sample administrators' global
performance judgments are (about) as valid as we've suspected. Human
Performance, 13(3), 253-277.
Data obtained on over 1,500 first-term U.S. Air Force enlisted
personnel indicated work sample administrators' global ratings of work sample
performance substantially reflect actual ratee behavior in the work sample, and
not potentially biasing factors (e.g., race, gender, amount of recent
experience), supporting the "folk wisdom" these global performance
judgments are, in fact, valid and unbiased measures of performance.
Robertson, I. T. & Kandola, R. S. (1982). Work sample
tests: Validity, adverse impact and applicant reaction. Journal of
Occupational Psychology, 55(3), 171-183.
Work sample tests are assigned to one of four categories:
(1) psychomotor; (2) individual, situational decision making; (3) job-related
information; and (4) group discussion/decision making. Validity data drawn
from over 60 studies are presented and show psychomotor work sample tests and
group discussions predict job performance relatively well when compared with
more conventional forms of psychological testing, such as intelligence or
personality tests. Data showing other validity relationships are presented,
and the importance of point-to-point correspondence between predictors and
criteria is discussed. Research on the adverse impact of work sample tests and
applicant reaction to such tests is reviewed and suggests the tests may help to
reduce adverse impact and produce positive reactions from candidates.
Schmidt, F. L. & Hunter, J.
E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel
psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research
findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262-274.
This article summarizes the practical and theoretical
implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of
meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection
procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the
validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) with the 18
other selection procedures. Overall, the three combinations with the highest
multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work
sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity
of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further
advantage of the latter two combinations is they can be used for both entry
level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility
implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of
these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are
Hilliard, P. A. (2001). Comparison of the predictive
validity of a written test, an integrity test, a conscientiousness
questionnaire, a structured behavioral interview and a personality inventory in
the assessment of job applicants' background investigations, and subsequent
task or contextual performance. Dissertation Abstracts International:
Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 62(6-B), 2981.
This study was designed to
compare the validity of several personnel selection instruments in the
prediction of the results of applicants' background investigations, and
incumbents' subsequent contextual and task work performance. The selection
instruments used were a written test, an integrity test, a conscientiousness
questionnaire, a structured behavioral interview, and a personality inventory.
Out of a total of 168 applicants who were interviewed, 23 were subsequently
hired, and job performance evaluations were collected for 18 employees.
Although there were some statistically significant findings (e.g., interviews
and conscientiousness predicted background investigation results and task
performance), the primary hypotheses were not supported. An additional findings
was many potential applicants screened themselves out of the process early in
the proceedings once they realized an extensive background investigation
would be conducted.
McDaniel, M. A. (1989). Biographical constructs for
predicting employee suitability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6),
The use of background
investigation data in personnel screening is reviewed. Background
investigations are routinely conducted on persons seeking positions of trust in
law enforcement, the nuclear power industry, and military and civilian
occupations requiring government-issued security clearances. The application
of background investigation information in personnel screening differs in many
important ways from biodata applications developed by psychologists. In this
article, these differences are reviewed, and the construct and
criterion-related validity of a survey-based measure are examined. This
measure taps content areas typically explored in background investigations.
Seven background factors were identified. The background scales showed
acceptable reliability, informative interscale relationships, and useful levels
of criterion-related validity.
McFadden, K. L. (1997). Policy improvements for
prevention of alcohol misuse by airline pilots. Human Factors, 39(1),
Analyzes two strategies for
reducing pilot-error aviation accidents: conducting background checks on pilots
for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) convictions, and random preflight alcohol
testing of airline pilots. The results of this study are based on analysis of
data obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration on the flying
performance of 70,164 airline pilots. DWI convictions were found to be
associated with a significantly greater risk of a pilot-error accident. In
contrast, no evidence was found to validate the assumption a random
alcohol testing program could have prevented accidents. The results provide
support for improving the existing DWI background check program and for
reducing the sampling rate of random alcohol testing for airline pilots. This
twofold strategy could result in greater improvements in aviation safety and
reduced overall costs.
Arthur, W., Jr., Bell, S. T., Villado, A. J., & Doverspike, D. (2006). The use of person-organization
fit in employment decision making: An assessment of its criterion-related
validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 786-801.
This article cautions against
the use of P-O measures as selection tools. Using meta-analytic analyses, the
criterion-related validity of P-O fit as a predictor of job performance was
only .15 with a small effect size. Another consideration is if using P-O as a
criterion-related selection tool, it needs to abide by the same professional
standards and practices (e.g., psychometric and legal) as other selection tests
as outlined by the Civil Rights Act (CRA; 1964, 1991) and Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission (EEOC; 1978). At this time, the authors suggest it is
best to limit P-O measures for after the candidate has been hired, such as for
placement, and not selection.
Cable, D. M., & Judge, T.
A. (1997). Interviewers' perceptions of person-organization fit and
organizational selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82,
A model of person-organization
fit and organizational hiring decisions is developed and tested, using data
from 38 interviewers making hiring decisions about 93 applicants. Results
suggest interviewers can assess applicant-organization values congruence with
significant levels of accuracy and interviewers compare their perceptions of
applicants' values with their organizations' values to assess
person-organization fit. Results also suggested interviewers' subjective
person-organization fit assessments have large effects on their hiring
recommendations relative to competing applicant characteristics, and
interviewers' hiring recommendations directly affect organizations' hiring
decisions (e.g., job offers).
Dineen, B. R., Ash, S. R., & Raymond, N. A. (2002). A
web of applicant attraction: Person-organization fit in the context of
web-based recruitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4),
Applicant attraction was
examined in the context of Web-based recruitment. Specifically, the provision
of feedback to individuals regarding their potential Person-Organization (P-O)
fit with an organization related to attraction was studied. Objective and
subjective P-O fit, agreement with fit feedback, and self esteem also were
examined in relation to attraction. Results of an experiment that manipulated
fit feedback level after a self-assessment provided by a fictitious company Web
site found both feedback level and objective P-O fit were related to
attraction. In addition, attraction was related to the interaction of
objective fit, feedback, and agreement and objective fit, feedback, and self
esteem. Implications and future Web-based recruitment research directions are
Judge, T. A., & Cable, D.
M. (1997). Applicant personality, organizational culture, and organizational
attraction. Personnel Psychology, 50, 359-394.
Examined the dispositional basis
of job seekers' organizational culture preferences and how these preferences
interact with recruiting organizations' cultures in their relation to
organization attraction. Data were collected from 182 business, engineering,
and industrial relations students who were seeking positions at the time of the
study. Results obtained from multiple sources suggested the Big Five
personality traits generally were related to hypothesized dimensions of culture
preferences. Results also suggested both objective person-organization fit and
subjective fit (applicant's direct perception of fit) were related to
Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An
integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel
Psychology, 49, 1-49.
Presents a comprehensive definition and conceptual model of
person-organization fit that incorporates supplementary as well as
complementary perspectives on fit. To increase the precision of the
construct's definition, it is also distinguished from other forms of
environmental compatibility, such as person-group and person-vocation fit.
Measurement as it relates to supplementary and complementary fit is discussed
and recommendations are offered regarding the necessity of its use. A
distinction is made between the direct measurement of perceived fit and the
indirect measurement of actual person-organization fit, and the debate
regarding differences scores is reviewed.
Martinez, M. N.
(2000). Get job seekers to come to you. HR Magazine, 45, 45-52.
This article discusses ways
organizations can use their website to attract top talent. Interactive
self-assessments of job fit are promoted as one effective practice. The author
states applicants are desperate for tools that help them determine their
"fit" in an organization and the key is to give them results.
Arvey, R. D., Maxwell, S. E., & Salas, E. (1992).
Development of physical ability tests for police officers: A construct
validation approach. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 77,996-1009.
A construct validation approach was followed and results
indicated eight physical ability test events were significantly related to two
important constructs underlying the job performance of police officers:
strength and endurance. In addition, the data were examined for potential
gender differences and bias. Considerable differences were shown between men
and women on both test and performance variables.
Arvey, R. D., Nutting, S.
M., & Landon, T. E. (1992). Validation strategies for physical ability
testing in police and fire settings. Public Personnel Management, 21,
Discusses two issues within the
context of selection and staffing for police and fire fighting positions: (1)
the increasing litigation challenging the validity of physical ability tests in
screening applicants for these positions, and (2) the lack of published
literature concerning the use and validation of physical ability tests in these
settings. The authors discuss issues associated with court challenges of
traditional content validity procedures and suggest there may be an over-reliance
on this particular validation strategy. They suggest construct validation
procedures may be an alternative procedure to provide evidence concerning the
validity of physical ability tests within these contexts. Construct validation
is described and illustrated via hypothetical examples.
Campbell, W. J., &
Fox, H. R. (2002). Testing individuals with disabilities in the employment
context: An overview of issues and practices. In R. B. Ekstrom & D. K.
Smith (Eds.) Assessing Individuals with Disabilities in Educational,
Employment, and Counseling Settings (1st ed, p. 198). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This chapter discusses the
possible issues that can occur when testing individuals with disabilities. It
noted while the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) permits the use of
physical ability tests, the tests cannot include (or involve)
physiological or biological measures. They also warned of the possibility of
applicants hurting themselves while performing a physical ability test.
Depending on the extensiveness of the physical ability test, employers may
request applicants to provide a certificate from their physicians indicating
their ability to safely perform a physical ability test.
Campion, M. A. (1983).
Personnel selection for physically demanding jobs: Review and recommendations. Personnel
Psychology, 36, 527-550.
Central issue of this paper is improvement in personnel selection systems for physically demanding jobs
is needed due to equal employment opportunity (EEO) considerations, concern for
worker physical well-being, and the lack of alternative procedures. After
addressing the special EEO sensitivities of physical abilities selection, the
literature is reviewed from a variety of disciplines on (1) the physiological
background underlying the selection strategies, (2) the assessment of human
physical abilities, (3) the measurement of physical requirements of jobs, and
(4) the physical abilities personnel selection studies reported in the literature.
Hogan, J. (1991). The
structure of physical performance in occupational tasks. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 76, 495-507.
Two lines of research concerning
the dimensionality of physical performance in occupational tasks are
described. In the first, the physical requirements of tasks are analyzed as
reflected in job analyses. In the second, the structure of physical abilities
tests used to predict performance in physically demanding jobs is evaluated.
Results of the data analysis suggest the structure of physical abilities has
three major components: strength, endurance, and movement quality. This
structure appears to be independent of job type or level of incumbents'
McEvoy, G. M., & Cascio, W. F. (1985). Strategies for
reducing employee turnover: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology,
In looking at the relative effectiveness of the Realistic
Job Preview (RFP) as a turnover-reduction strategy, this meta-analysis found
RJPs are about half as effective as job enrichment strategies in reducing
turnover. However, it should be noted the job enrichment measures included in
this meta-analysis were used with existing workers, whereas the RJPs were used
during the application process. Given the low correlation between RJPs and
reduction in turnover, the authors suggest managers use other turnover
reduction strategies prior to hiring.
Pitt, L. F., & Ramaseshan, B. (1995). Realistic job
information and salesforce turnover: An investigative study. Journal of
Managerial Psychology, 10(5), 29-36.
Salespeople were asked to provide ratings on the volume,
personal relevance, depth, and accuracy of information they received when they
applied for their current jobs. They were also asked about their intention to
quit their current job. The results indicated those applicants (employees) who
felt they received more accurate and realistic job information were
significantly less likely to indicate (or consider) quitting their current
Saks, A. M, Wiesner, W. H., & Summers, R. (1996).
Effects of job previews and compensation policy on applicant attraction and job
choice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 68-85.
Students were asked to rate the attractiveness of jobs after
reviewing a Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and a Traditional Job Preview (TJP).
Jobs with RJPs were rated as more attractive only when those positions had a
higher compensation than the TJP position. Results of this study indicate many
other factors (with compensation being studied here) may contribute to an
applicant's decision to accept (or reject) a job when coupled with an RJP.
Wanous, J. P. (1989). Installing a realistic job preview:
Ten tough choices. Personnel Psychology, 42(1), 117-133.
The author reviews the ten different choices one must make
when constructing a Realistic Job Preview (RJP). Examples of the choices
include whether the content should be descriptive or judgmental, contain high
or medium negativity, or whether the results should be shared or kept
proprietary. For each choice, the author includes the pros and cons of each.
The author concludes the article with personal recommendations for each of the