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A substantially different rate of selection in hiring which works to the disadvantage of members of any race, sex, or ethnic group.
Based on the principle that past behavior is the best
predictor of future behavior. In practice, the method involves describing
previous accomplishments gained through work, training, or other experience
(e.g., school, community service, hobbies) and matching those accomplishments
to the competencies required by the job.
In a concurrent study, job incumbents (i.e.,
current employees) are tested and their job performance is evaluated at the
same time. The relation between current performance on the assessment and on
the job can then be examined. Evidence of concurrent validity is often
substituted for predictive validity.
Whether this is appropriate will depend on the type of measure and how
similar the incumbent sample is to the applicant population.
A construct refers to the underlying trait (e.g.,
intelligence, sociability) assumed to be measured by an assessment.
Construct validation involves collecting evidence to determine whether the
assessment does indeed measure the trait it was intended to measure.
Evidence (based on job analysis and expert judgment)
the choice of items or tasks included in the assessment logically match or
represent those tasks or competencies required by the job.
The degree to which performance on
an assessment procedure predicts (or is statistically related to) an
important criterion such as job performance, training success, or
There are two major types of criterion-related validity, concurrent and predictive .
An applicant's perception of how valid a measure is based
on simple visual inspection. Though face validity alone cannot be used to
support the use of an assessment, it is important because it promotes
cooperation and acceptance of the assessment process on the part of
The extent to which a new assessment adds to the
prediction of job success above and beyond the forecasting powers of an
A systematic examination of
the tasks performed in a job and the competencies required to perform them.
In a predictive study, job applicants are tested
and their performance evaluated at a later time, usually after being on the
job for 6 months or more. The relation between performance on the assessment
and on the job can then be examined.
The extent to which assessment
scores are related to current or future job performance (or some other work-related
outcome such as training success, productivity, absenteeism, turnover). For
types of validity evidence, see content validity,
construct validity, and criterion-related validity.
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